The founder of Bernreuter Research, Johannes Bernreuter, has been covering the polysilicon industry since 2001. In our library, you can download Bernreuter's earlier market surveys on polysilicon production, reviews of Photon's Solar Silicon Conference series and current documents as a free PDF file for your personal use. In our shop, you will find comprehensive polysilicon market reports.

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Chinese Ministry of Commerce raises duties on Korean polysilicon imports

On November 21, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced new duty rates for polysilicon imports from South Korea into China, following a mid-term review that took one year. As rumored, the new tariffs are below 5% for OCI Company (4.4%) and below 10% for Hankook Silicon (9.5%) and Hanwha Chemical (8.9%). The other rates are irrelevant as the respective companies are not active anymore.

The PDF file below contains an English machine translation of Mofcom's announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:


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Misleading statements on Korean polysilicon imports into China

BusinessKorea reported on September 4 that polysilicon exports from South Korea in the second quarter of 2017 decreased by 25.5% versus Q2 2016, attributing the decline to political friction with China. pv magazine countered with the opposite claim that Korean polysilicon imports into China in the second quarter of 2017 were 32% higher than in Q2 2016, but quoted a wrong number: The import value in Q2 2016 was not $200.2 million as stated, but $262.7 million – almost the same as the value of $263.4 million in Q2 2017, according to Chinese customs statistics. In the seven months from January through July, however, the import value decreased from $599.8 million in 2016 by 3.5% to $578.7 million in 2017. The decline was due to lower prices as the import volume during these periods remained almost flat between 40,365 metric tons (MT) in 2016 and 40,129 MT in 2017. The chart in the jpg file below shows the monthly import values and volumes.




Appeals Court on Hemlock Semiconductor v. SolarWorld Industries Sachsen GmbH

On August 16, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed the summary judgement of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan which awarded Hemlock Semiconductor Operations, LLC nearly $800 million in damages and interest for the breach of four long-term polysilicon supply contracts by Hemlock's ex-customer SolarWorld Industries Sachsen GmbH (formerly Deutsche Solar GmbH), a subsidiary of insolvent SolarWorld AG. The PDF file below contains the 21-page judgement.

Judgement on:, 16 August 2017




Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the EU extended, Wacker exempted

On April 28, 2017, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced after a final review that it has extended the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU) by 18 months. The announcement mirrors the decision of the European Commission in February to extend duties on imports of Chinese solar cells and modules by 18 months. Mofcom's step is rather symbolic as its minimum price agreement with Wacker Chemie AG, the only important polysilicon manufacturer in the EU, remains in place, which exempts the company from any punitive duties.

The PDF files below contain English machine translations of Mofcom's announcements regarding anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties. The original Chinese versions can be found at:


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Polysilicon & wafer rankings 2016

Demand is looking strong for both polysilicon and crystalline silicon wafers, as analysts expect that another rush for installations is imminent, ahead of China's latest feed-in tariff cut in July. Demand for monocrystalline wafers has increased, but manufacturing trends still leave space for high performance multi-wafers.

in: pv magazine 03/2017, pp. 54-57

Bernreuter Research does not agree to the polysilicon production data provided by IHS for the article. For our own polysilicon ranking, see our press release:
Wacker Is New Global Polysilicon Market Leader





Tongwei subsidiary announces joint venture with Longi

Sichuan Yonxiang Co. Ltd., a subsidiary of Chinese industrial giants Tongwei, has announced the creation of a joint venture with Longi Green Energy Technology. The joint venture plans to build a new polysilicon production plant in Sichuan Province, China, with an annual capacity of 50,000 metric tonnes.

on:, 14 March 2017




Mid-term review of Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from South Korea

On November 22, 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced a mid-term review of the anti-dumping duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from South Korea, which would expire on January 19, 2019. The Chinese applicants for the review – GCL-Poly's subsidiary Jiangsu Zhongneng, LDK PV Silicon, Luoyang China Silicon and Daqo New Energy – claim a dumping margin of 33.68%, whereas the current anti-dumping duties for the two most important South Korean importers – OCI and Hankook Silicon – are only 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively. The PDF file below contains an English machine translation of Mofcom's announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:


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Bankruptcy court approves GCL purchase of SunEdison FBR polysilicon tech

The acquisition narrows the number of companies that are developing FBR, and further consolidates the transfer of this technology to Chinese companies.

on:, 31 October 2016


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GCL-Poly places US$150 million bid for SunEdison's polysilicon assets

Leading polysilicon and solar wafer producer GCL-Poly Energy Holding has placed a bid of US$150 million for the polysilicon assets of bankrupt renewable energy firm SunEdison via the US bankruptcy court dealing with the Chapter 11 proceedings.

on:, 29 August 2016


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Hemlock leveraging SolarWorld contracts to get Chinese trade duties removed

The court document from the dramatic initial ruling in the SolarWorld and Hemlock Semiconductor polysilicon dispute reveals that Hemlock was willing to negotiate amendments to the polysilicon Supply Agreements with SolarWorld subsidiary Deutsche Solar, if the German company assisted in resolving a dispute "between the US and China over the exchange of solar-industry products."

on:, 14 July 2016

Hemlock-leveraging-SolarWorld-contracts-to-get-Chinese-trade-duties-removed_ pv-magazine-14-07-2016.pdf

Hemlock-leveraging-SolarWorld-contracts-to-get-Chinese-trade-duties-removed_ pv-magazine-14-07-2016.pdf
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Chinese Ministry of Commerce prolongs minimum price agreement with Wacker

The Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) has announced that it is launching a one-year-long expiry review to decide whether the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy tariffs on European polysilicon should expire. At the same time, it is prolonging an agreement that Mofcom and Wacker Chemie AG reached in 2014. As previously, Wacker undertakes not to sell polysilicon produced at its European plants below a specific minimum price in China. Mofcom, in turn, still refrains from imposing anti-dumping and anti-subsidy tariffs on this material.

Source: Wacker Chemie AG, 29 April 2016


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Expiry review of Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the European Union

On April 29, 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced a review of the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU), which would have expired on April 30, 2016. During the period of the expiry review from May 1, 2016 through April 30, 2017, the duties remain in place. The PDF file below contains an English machine translation of Mofcom's announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:


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Wacker opens polysilicon plant

Competition in a difficult market faces $2.5 billion Tennessee facility.

in: Chemical & Engineering News, 22 April 2016




2015 poly and wafer rankings

Polysilicon manufacturers and wafer producers are facing wildly different fortunes. With polysilicon prices remaining low, the competitive landscape is in flux. But quality still counts. Wafer demand remains strong as wafer, cell and module capacities have not expanded in step. Christian Roselund reports.

in: pv magazine 04/2016, pp. 74-77

Bernreuter Research does not agree to the polysilicon production data provided by IHS for the article.




Wacker confident on China future as trade deal nears expiry

German polysilicon firm Wacker Chemie hopes to continue selling to Chinese manufacturers beyond the expiration of its existing trade agreement with Beijing.

on:, 30 March 2016

Wacker-confident-on-China-future as-trade-deal-nears-expiry_PV-Tech-30-03-2016.pdf



Polysilicon prices on the rise in China, but the US is excluded

A sharp rise in demand for polysilicon in China is leading to a partial price recovery; however US manufacturers are unable to take advantage after losing access to the market, according to market research company IHS.

on:, 22 March 2016


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SunEdison divests from polysilicon and wafer assets

The world's largest renewable energy developer is shutting legacy polysilicon production and selling off a wafer facility. SunEdison says this is part of its move to an "asset-light" strategy, but it may also reflect polysilicon market conditions and a need to preserve cash.

on:, 18 February 2016


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Polysilicon prices collapse amid global supply glut

China closing a loophole on polysilicon imports may have had unintended consequences, as new Chinese plants are exacerbating existing oversupply.

in: pv magazine 12/2015, pp. 14-15




The slow grind of FBR polysilicon

Fluidized  bed  reactor  (FBR)  technology  has  been  hailed  as  a  means  to produce polysilicon for solar at lower costs and with a small fraction of the electricity used by the dominant Siemens process. However, long delays at two new projects and technical challenges are slowing the progress of this promising technology. Will FBR eventually deliver?

in: pv magazine 09/2015, pp. 88-91




FBR polysilicon technology – promise or hype?

The recent announcement by US manufacturer REC Silicon that it would establish a new polysilicon plant with an annual production capacity of 19,000 metric tons has highlighted an upcoming trend in the polysilicon industry: the rise of fluidised bed reactor (FBR) technology. Could FBR end up as just another three-letter acronym for a technology that has been overhyped?

Guest Blog on:, 7 March 2014


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No preliminary Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the European Union

On January 24, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its preliminary rulings regarding anti-dumping and countervailing (anti-subsidy) duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU). Although Mofcom states that dumping and subsidies caused "substantial damage" to the Chinese polysilicon industry in the survey period, it has decided not to impose preliminary duties on polysilicon imports from the EU in view of "special market conditions." The two PDF files below each contain an English machine translation of the short version of the rulings. The original Chinese announcements can be found at:


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Final Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the US and South Korea

On January 20, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its final rulings regarding anti-dumping duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the US and South Korea as well as countervailing (anti-subsidy) duties on polysilicon imports from the US. The two PDF files below each contain an English machine translation of the short version of the rulings. The original Chinese announcements can be found at:


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Preliminary Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the US and South Korea

On July 18, 2013, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its preliminary ruling on the anti-dumping investigation against imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the US and South Korea. The PDF contains an English machine translation of the short version of the ruling. The Chinese original can be found at:




Year of transition

A drop in demand on the part of the photovoltaics industry and the massive expansion of production capacities have resulted in an oversupply of polysilicon. This has caused the spot price to plummet and many factories are standing idle. The 10th Solar Silicon Conference, which was held in Berlin at the end of March, sought ways out of the doldrums.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2012, pp. 192-195




Oversupply ahead

Those predicting a polysilicon glut are increasing in number – as too at the 9th Solar Silicon Conference held in Berlin in mid-April. Whether or not there is consolidation amongst the manufacturers will mainly depend on the turbulent development of the photovoltaics market.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2011, pp. 218-220




Superior top dog

Is the classic Siemens process the winner of the silicon industry’s technology race? At the 8th Solar Silicon Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, it certainly seemed so. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon has a hard time during periods of oversupply, but could play a supporting role in the future.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 6/2010, pp. 134-137




Unperturbed expansion

Is the silicon industry changing direction from a highly profitable situation of short supply to one of oversupply with very low prices? Opinions on the matter were divided at the 7th Solar Grade Silicon Conference in Munich.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2009, pp. 164-166




Full steam ahead from 2008

The polysilicon market is expected to be tight again next year. Certainly from 2008 production capacities will grow significantly, not least due to a whole series of new entrants. By 2010, supply could already be sufficient for a solar cell production of 12 GWp.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 2/2006, pp. 92-104


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Solar-grade silicon: expensive and in short supply

As long as six years ago it was predicted that the photovoltaic industry would suffer a silicon shortage in 2005 – and now this prophesy has indeed come true. A degree of relief through extra production capacity by the manufacturers of electronic-grade silicon cannot be expected until 2006, while alternative production processes will further ease the situation from 2007 onwards.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 1/2005, pp. 76-83




Charlie Gay, a veteran in the solar industry, esteems the work of Bernreuter Research.