POLYSILICON PDF ARTICLES

Our collection of PDF articles on the polysilicon industry and its markets comprises the following sources, each in chronological order:

  • Reports from trade magazines and news websites, mainly pv magazine and PV Tech, containing input from Bernreuter Research:
    Magazine Reports
  • Announcements of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) regarding duties on polysilicon imports from the United States, South Korea and the European Union:
    Polysilicon Duty Announcements
  • Court decisions on the contract disputes between polysilicon manufacturer Hemlock Semiconductor and its customers:
    Court Decisions
  • Earlier reports by the founder of Bernreuter Research, Johannes Bernreuter, namely global market surveys (in 2005 and 2006) and reviews of Photon’s Solar Silicon Conferences (through 2012):
    Market Surveys and Conference Reviews

All these articles are available for download as a free PDF. Please note: The download is intended solely for personal use. It is not allowed to copy, distribute or publish the content – for example on other web sites – without the express written permission of Bernreuter Research.

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For in-depth analysis, we offer our comprehensive polysilicon industry reports.

 

Magazine Reports

Is this the end for Korean polysilicon?

The nation’s only two poly manufacturers could both shutter factories in their homeland due to downward price pressure. OCI says it will maintain only 6,500 MT of its 52,000 MT annual production capacity in an operational state and Hanwha Chemical says it is ‘examining the situation’. Poly analyst Johannes Bernreuter has discussed the reasons for the crisis with pv magazine.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 13 February 2020

Coronavirus to have limited impact on Chinese polysilicon industry

Analyst Johannes Bernreuter says most of China’s polysilicon production capacity is in regions away from the center of the coronavirus outbreak. He added, however, 27% of the nation’s 510,000-ton annual polysilicon capacity could be affected.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 5 February 2020

China holds firm on strategy to build self-sufficient domestic polysilicon industry

The Chinese government will extend duties on U.S. and South Korean polysilicon for another five years from today despite committing to buy $200 billion more American goods and services in the trade deal signed on Wednesday. Poly manufacturer REC Silicon says it expects polysilicon to form part of that trade agreement.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 20 January 2020

Norwegian polysilicon maker rallies 65 per cent on US-China trade deal

Shares in polysilicon producer REC Silicon jumped by 65 per cent on Thursday after China agreed to buy more US supplies of the solar panel material as part of the countries’ “phase-one” trade deal. The test of the trade deal will be on January 18 when China releases a final review on its duties on
US polysilicon, Johannes Bernreuter, an analyst of the market, said.

on: www.ft.com, 16 January 2020

Polysilicon prices to rebound in September

Average spot polysilicon price has crossed below the $8/kg threshold for the first time, according to PVInsights. Market analyst Johannes Bernreuter said, however, that the industry should not read too much into $8/kg as a historical threshold and that prices may rise again in September, driven by strong demand in the Chinese market.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 20 August 2019

Polysilicon goes west

Slower demand from China in 2018 meant a bumpy ride for polysilicon producers worldwide. But the biggest players remain committed and are taking advantage of low electricity rates in western China to bring huge new capacities online, giving the market yet another shake-up. pv magazine caught up with polysilicon market analyst Johannes Bernreuter, Head of Bernreuter Research, for a look at the latest upstream developments.

in: pv magazine 06/2019, pp. 94-95

Polysilicon and wafer manufacturers ranking 2017

PV demand reached record levels in 2017, with global installations surpassing 100 GW for the first time ever. Few in the industry expected deployments to hit this level, piling the pressure on to the supply chain. Armed with polysilicon and wafer manufacturer ranking data supplied by IHS Markit, pv magazine delves into the past year’s upstream landscape.

in: pv magazine 03/2018, pp. 56-59

Annotation:
Bernreuter Research does not agree to the polysilicon production data from IHS Markit. For our own 2016 polysilicon manufacturers ranking, see our press release:

Wacker Is New Global Polysilicon Market Leader

Hemlock Semiconductor to lay off 100 workers

The Michigan-based polysilicon maker has been in trouble since the imposition of Chinese trade duties on imported polysilicon in 2013.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 19 October 2017

Polysilicon & wafer rankings 2016

Demand is looking strong for both polysilicon and crystalline silicon wafers, as analysts expect that another rush for installations is imminent, ahead of China’s latest feed-in tariff cut in July. Demand for monocrystalline wafers has increased, but manufacturing trends still leave space for high performance multi-wafers.

in: pv magazine 03/2017, pp. 54-57

Annotation:
Bernreuter Research does not agree to the polysilicon production data provided by IHS for the article. For our own polysilicon manufacturers ranking, see our press release:

Wacker Is New Global Polysilicon Market Leader

Tongwei subsidiary announces joint venture with Longi

Sichuan Yonxiang Co. Ltd., a subsidiary of Chinese industrial giants Tongwei, has announced the creation of a joint venture with Longi Green Energy Technology. The joint venture plans to build a new polysilicon production plant in Sichuan Province, China, with an annual capacity of 50,000 metric tonnes.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 14 March 2017

Bankruptcy court approves GCL purchase of SunEdison polysilicon tech

The acquisition narrows the number of companies that are developing FBR, and further consolidates the transfer of this technology to Chinese companies.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 31 October 2016

GCL-Poly places US$150 million bid for SunEdison’s polysilicon assets

Leading polysilicon and solar wafer producer GCL-Poly Energy Holding has placed a bid of US$150 million for the polysilicon assets of bankrupt renewable energy firm SunEdison via the US bankruptcy court dealing with the Chapter 11 proceedings.

on: www.pv-tech.org, 29 August 2016

Hemlock leveraging SolarWorld contracts to get Chinese duties removed

The court document from the dramatic initial ruling in the SolarWorld and Hemlock Semiconductor polysilicon dispute reveals that Hemlock was willing to negotiate amendments to the polysilicon Supply Agreements with SolarWorld subsidiary Deutsche Solar, if the German company assisted in resolving a dispute „between the US and China over the exchange of solar-industry products.“

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 14 July 2016

Wacker opens polysilicon plant

Competition in a difficult market faces $2.5 billion Tennessee facility.

in: Chemical & Engineering News, 22 April 2016

2015 poly and wafer rankings

Polysilicon manufacturers and wafer producers are facing wildly different fortunes. With polysilicon prices remaining low, the competitive landscape is in flux. But quality still counts. Wafer demand remains strong as wafer, cell and module capacities have not expanded in step. Christian Roselund reports.

in: pv magazine 04/2016, pp. 74-77

Annotation:
Bernreuter Research does not agree to the polysilicon production data provided by IHS for the article.

Wacker confident on China future as trade deal nears expiry

German polysilicon firm Wacker Chemie hopes to continue selling to Chinese manufacturers beyond the expiration of its existing trade agreement with Beijing.

on: www.pv-tech.org, 30 March 2016

Polysilicon prices on the rise in China, but the US is excluded

A sharp rise in demand for polysilicon in China is leading to a partial price recovery; however US manufacturers are unable to take advantage after losing access to the market, according to market research company IHS.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 22 March 2016

SunEdison divests from polysilicon and wafer assets

The world’s largest renewable energy developer is shutting legacy polysilicon production and selling off a wafer facility. SunEdison says this is part of its move to an „asset-light“ strategy, but it may also reflect polysilicon market conditions and a need to preserve cash.

on: www.pv-magazine.com, 18 February 2016

Polysilicon prices collapse amid global supply glut

China closing a loophole on polysilicon imports may have had unintended consequences, as new Chinese plants are exacerbating existing oversupply.

in: pv magazine 12/2015, pp. 14-15

The slow grind of FBR polysilicon

Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) technology has been hailed as a means to produce polysilicon for solar at lower costs and with a small fraction of the electricity used by the dominant Siemens process. However, long delays at two new projects and technical challenges are slowing the progress of this promising technology. Will FBR eventually deliver?

in: pv magazine 09/2015, pp. 88-91

Polysilicon Duty Announcements

Chinese Ministry of Commerce extends duties on U.S. and South Korean polysilicon imports by 5 years

On January 19, 2020, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced that anti-dumping and countervailing duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the United States and South Korea will be extended by another five years through January 19, 2025.

The PDF files below contain an English machine translation of Mofcom’s announcements. The original Chinese versions can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/202001/20200102931610.shtml
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/202001/20200102931616.shtml

Chinese Ministry of Commerce opens new review of duties on U.S. and South Korean polysilicon imports

On January 18, 2019, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced that anti-dumping and countervailing duties will continue to be imposed on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the United States and South Korea while it will conduct a final review running through January 18, 2020. The announcement came one day before the expiry of the existing duties on January 19, 2019.

The PDF files below contain an English version of Mofcom’s announcements. The original Chinese versions can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201901/20190102828086.shtml
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201901/20190102828115.shtml

Chinese Ministry of Commerce terminates duties on EU polysilicon imports

On October 31, 2018, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced that the anti-dumping and countervailing duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU) into China have been terminated. The duties never had practical relevance as Wacker, the only European importer, remained exempt after it closed a minimum price agreement with Mofcom.

The PDF file below contains an English version of Mofcom’s announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201810/20181002801391.shtml

Chinese Ministry of Commerce raises duties on Korean polysilicon imports

On November 21, 2017, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced new duty rates for polysilicon imports from South Korea into China, following a mid-term review that took one year. As rumored, the new tariffs are below 5% for OCI Company (4.4%) and below 10% for Hankook Silicon (9.5%) and Hanwha Chemical (8.9%). The other rates are irrelevant as the respective companies are not active anymore.

The PDF file below contains an English version of Mofcom’s announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201711/20171102673412.shtml

Chinese duties on EU polysilicon imports extended, Wacker exempted

On April 28, 2017, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced after a final review that it has extended the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU) by 18 months. The announcement mirrors the decision of the European Commission in February to extend duties on imports of Chinese solar cells and modules by 18 months. Mofcom’s step is rather symbolic as its minimum price agreement with Wacker Chemie AG, the only important polysilicon manufacturer in the EU, remains in place, which exempts the company from any punitive duties.

The PDF files below contain English machine translations of Mofcom’s announcements regarding anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties. The original Chinese versions can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201704/20170402566587.shtml
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201704/20170402566615.shtml

Mid-term review of Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from South Korea

On November 22, 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced a mid-term review of the anti-dumping duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from South Korea, which would expire on January 19, 2019. The Chinese applicants for the review – GCL-Poly’s subsidiary Jiangsu Zhongneng, LDK PV Silicon, Luoyang China Silicon and Daqo New Energy – claim a dumping margin of 33.68%, whereas the current anti-dumping duties for the two most important South Korean importers – OCI and Hankook Silicon – are only 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively.

The PDF file below contains an English machine translation of Mofcom’s announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201611/20161101871868.shtml

Chinese Ministry prolongs minimum price agreement with Wacker

The Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) has announced that it is launching a one-year-long expiry review to decide whether the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy tariffs on European polysilicon should expire. At the same time, it is prolonging an agreement that Mofcom and Wacker Chemie AG reached in 2014. As previously, Wacker undertakes not to sell polysilicon produced at its European plants below a specific minimum price in China. Mofcom, in turn, still refrains from imposing anti-dumping and anti-subsidy tariffs on this material.

Source: Wacker Chemie AG, 29 April 2016

Expiry review of Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the EU

On April 29, 2016, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced a review of the anti-dumping and anti-subsidy duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU), which would have expired on April 30, 2016. During the period of the expiry review from May 1, 2016 through April 30, 2017, the duties remain in place.

The PDF file below contains an English machine translation of Mofcom’s announcement. The original Chinese version can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201604/20160401308453.shtml

No preliminary Chinese duties on polysilicon imports from the EU

On January 24, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its preliminary rulings regarding anti-dumping and countervailing (anti-subsidy) duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the European Union (EU). Although Mofcom states that dumping and subsidies caused „substantial damage“ to the Chinese polysilicon industry in the survey period, it has decided not to impose preliminary duties on polysilicon imports from the EU in view of „special market conditions.“

The two PDF files below each contain an English machine translation of the short version of the rulings. The original Chinese announcements can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201401/20140100472574.shtml
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201401/20140100472667.shtml

Final Chinese duties on U.S. and South Korean polysilicon imports

On January 20, 2014, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its final rulings regarding anti-dumping duties on imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the U.S. and South Korea as well as countervailing (anti-subsidy) duties on polysilicon imports from the U.S.

The two PDF files below each contain an English machine translation of the short version of the rulings. The original Chinese announcements can be found at:
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201401/20140100466573.shtml
http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/b/e/201401/20140100466559.shtml

Preliminary Chinese duties on U.S. and South Korean polysilicon imports

On July 18, 2013, the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Mofcom) announced its preliminary ruling on the anti-dumping investigation against imports of solar-grade polysilicon from the U.S. and South Korea.

The PDF contains an English machine translation of the short version of the ruling. The Chinese original can be found at:
http://gpj.mofcom.gov.cn/article/cs/201307/20130700206243.shtml

Court Decisions

Appeals Court on Hemlock Semiconductor v. Kyocera Corporation

On August 16, 2018, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit ruled that the take-or-pay provision in the long-term supply contracts of polysilicon manufacturer Hemlock Semiconductor with its Japanese customer Kyocera is an unlawful penalty. The court decided it “cannot say that requiring Kyocera to pay full price for nothing is a reasonable measure of damages.” The PDF file below contains the 21-page judgement.

Source: https://cases.justia.com

Appeals Court on Hemlock Semiconductor v. SolarWorld Industries

On August 16, 2017, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed the summary judgement of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, which awarded Hemlock Semiconductor Operations, LLC nearly $800 million in damages and interest for the breach of four long-term polysilicon supply contracts by Hemlock’s ex-customer SolarWorld Industries Sachsen GmbH (formerly Deutsche Solar GmbH), a subsidiary of insolvent SolarWorld AG. The PDF file below contains the 21-page judgement.

Source: http://cases.justia.com

Market Surveys and Conference Reviews

Year of transition

A drop in demand on the part of the photovoltaics industry and the massive expansion of production capacities have resulted in an oversupply of polysilicon. This has caused the spot price to plummet and many factories are standing idle. The 10th Solar Silicon Conference, which was held in Berlin at the end of March, sought ways out of the doldrums.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2012, pp. 192-195

Oversupply ahead

Those predicting a polysilicon glut are increasing in number – as too at the 9th Solar Silicon Conference held in Berlin in mid-April. Whether or not there is consolidation amongst the manufacturers will mainly depend on the turbulent development of the photovoltaics market.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2011, pp. 218-220

Superior top dog

Is the classic Siemens process the winner of the silicon industry’s technology race? At the 8th Solar Silicon Conference in Stuttgart, Germany, it certainly seemed so. Upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon has a hard time during periods of oversupply, but could play a supporting role in the future.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 6/2010, pp. 134-137

Unperturbed expansion

Is the silicon industry changing direction from a highly profitable situation of short supply to one of oversupply with very low prices? Opinions on the matter were divided at the 7th Solar Grade Silicon Conference in Munich.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 5/2009, pp. 164-166

Full steam ahead from 2008

The polysilicon market is expected to be tight again next year. Certainly from 2008 production capacities will grow significantly, not least due to a whole series of new entrants. By 2010, supply could already be sufficient for a solar cell production of 12 GWp.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 2/2006, pp. 92-104

Solar-grade silicon: expensive and in short supply

As long as six years ago it was predicted that the photovoltaic industry would suffer a silicon shortage in 2005 – and now this prophesy has indeed come true. A degree of relief through extra production capacity by the manufacturers of electronic-grade silicon cannot be expected until 2006, while alternative production processes will further ease the situation from 2007 onwards.

in: Sun & Wind Energy 1/2005, pp. 76-83